Diabetes is a disease in which your blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels are too high. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that helps the glucose get into your cells to give them energy.
With type 1 diabetes, your body does not make insulin. Also called insulin-dependent diabetes, it used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes because it often begins in childhood. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune condition. It happens when your body attacks your pancreas with antibodies. The organ is damaged and doesn't make insulin. Your genes might cause this type of diabetes. It could also happen because of problems with cells in your pancreas that make insulin.
Many of the health problems that can come with type 1 happen because of damage to tiny blood vessels in your eyes (called diabetic retinopathy), nerves (diabetic neuropathy), and kidneys (diabetic nephropathy). Type 1 raises your risk of heart disease and stroke.
Type 2 diabetes used to be called non-insulin-dependent or adult-onset diabetes. Despite this, it’s become more common in children and teens over the past 20 years, Primarily because more young people are overweight and obese due to declining lifestyle choices in diet and exercise. Approximately 90% of people with diabetes have type 2 Diabetes.
When you have type 2 diabetes, your pancreas usually creates some insulin. But either it’s not enough or your body doesn’t use it as it should due to Insulin resistance.
Type 2 diabetes is often milder than type 1. But it can still cause major health complications, especially in the tiny blood vessels in your kidneys, nerves, and eyes. Type 2 also raises your risk of heart disease and stroke.
There’s no cure for diabetes, but with treatment and lifestyle changes, you can live a long, healthy life.
Diabetes Mellitus Signs and Symptoms
- Frequent urination
- Excessive thirst
- Unexplained weight loss
- Extreme hunger
- Sudden vision changes
- Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet
- Feeling very tired much of the time